Instruction 2-5 to 2-9

2-5

Instruction

2-5 The curriculum must include at least two academic years of full-time instruction or its equivalent at the postsecondary college-level. The scope and depth of the curriculum must reflect the objectives and philosophy of higher education. A college catalog must be submitted listing degree awarded, course titles and descriptions.

In a two‑year college setting, the graduates of the program, must be awarded an associate degree. In a four‑year college or university, the graduates of the program must be awarded an associate degree, certificate, or a baccalaureate degree.

Intent:

The time necessary for psychomotor skill development and the number of required content areas require two academic years of study and is considered the minimum preparation for a dental hygienist. However, the curriculum may be structured to allow individual students to meet performance standards specified for graduation in less than two academic years as well as to provide opportunity for students who require more time to extend the length of their instructional program.

Maximum opportunity should be provided for students to continue their formal education with a minimum loss of time and duplication of learning experiences. Institutions are strongly encouraged to develop articulation agreements between associate degree programs and baccalaureate programs that provide for maximum transfer of clinical and clinically related course work. General education, social science and biomedical science courses included in associate degree dental hygiene curricula should parallel those offered in four-year colleges and universities. In baccalaureate degree curricula, attention is given to requirements for admission to graduate programs in establishing the balance between professional and nonprofessional credit allocations.

A. Description

1. Describe how the objectives and philosophy of higher education is reflected in the scope and depth of the dental hygiene curriculum. Describe how the curriculum is designed to provide students with increasing skills in depth and understanding in both the didactic and clinical curricula.

Lake Superior College strives to educate its students as total persons, it is strongly committed to general education. The purpose of general education at the college is to develop competencies which enable students to function effectively as informed, articulate, thinking and responsible members of society and to foster in them a commitment to comprehensive personal growth.

The courses in general education are aimed at developing the student’s abilities in communication, information gathering and the social and natural sciences. The college’s general education curriculum provides students with opportunities throughout the curriculum to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills, computer literacy, and understanding of cultural differences.

The dental hygiene program is a 2-year, full-time academic program awarding an Associate in Applied Science degree. As with other degree programs at Lake Superior College, the dental hygiene curriculum requires that its students satisfy the college’s requirements in general education, social sciences and biomedical science for degree completion.

The intent and rationale for the order of the courses in the dental hygiene curriculum corresponds with the time necessary for development of psychomotor and critical thinking skills. Foundational skill courses are ordered first in the curriculum to allow application in higher level course and continued skill building.

Globally applicable skills, i.e., reading, writing, reasoning, speaking, is best learned if integrated throughout a curriculum. The dental hygiene program has planned its courses so that these skills are developed across the curriculum. In pre-clinical and clinical theory courses, students must complete a number of writing assignments. Critical thinking and problem-solving are threaded throughout the dental hygiene courses, case-based assignments, clinical examinations and research assignments are a few examples of techniques used in the curriculum to encourage student’s abilities to problem solve and analyze information.

The program sequences learning experiences, and uses teaching and evaluation strategies to move students through developmental stages from novice to competent. The ultimate goal of our competency based program is to produce a competent entry level dental hygiene practitioner.

The clinical courses have followed competency-based pedagogy for a number of years. A recently completed curriculum inventory has defined the dental hygiene curriculum in terms of our program’s competencies. For each of the program’s competencies, student learning outcomes and evaluation methods have been identified.

The dental hygiene program curriculum has been designed to allow students a greater number of errors while they are learning a new skill or procedure. As time progresses and student competency increases, students are allowed fewer errors in performance. The clinic evaluation tool also progresses from being more process oriented to more end product as the student progresses through the clinic courses. The last semester of clinic requires the student to increase their production while maintaining their performance level.

Dental hygiene students are provided the opportunity to continue their formal education through transfer to baccalaureate programs. All of the required general education, social science and biomedical science courses are designed to transfer to four-year institutions. The Lake Superior College dental hygiene program has 4 articulation agreements in place for its graduates.

B. Supportive Documentation

1. Exhibit AA: Lake Superior College Catalog separate document

2. Exhibit BB: Lake Superior College website: www.lsc.edu

3. Exhibit CC: Dental Hygiene Program Handbook (separate document)

2-6

2-6 A process must be established to assure students meet the didactic, behavioral and/or clinical criteria as published and distributed. Academic standards and institutional due process policies must be followed for remediation or dismissal.

A college document must be submitted listing institutional due process procedures.

Intent:

If a student does not meet evaluation criteria, provision should be made for remediation or dismissal. On the basis of designated criteria, both students and faculty can periodically assess progress in relation to the stated goals and objectives of the program.

A. Description

1. Describe how the standard is implemented.

Dental hygiene students must attend a college orientation session prior to enrolling at LSC. The institutions criteria, due process procedures, academic policies and general college policies and procedure are discussed during this session. All college policies are listed on the website: www.lsc.edu and found in the College Catalog.

Prior to enrollment in the dental hygiene program, students are required to attend a college orientation session which includes discussion of college policies. The dental hygiene program conducts an orientation/registration session prior to enrollment in the dental hygiene program. The Dental Hygiene Program Handbook is handed out at this time which also includes didactic, behavioral and/or clinical criteria, academic standards and institutional due process policies for remediation or dismissal.

The dental hygiene program course syllabus, also states the academic, behavioral and clinical standards that are required to continue in the program. The Dental Hygiene Program Handbook lists the specific expectations and due process procedures should remediation or dismissal from the program be necessary.

B. Supportive Documentation

1. Exhibit AA: Lake Superior College Catalog (separate document)

2. Exhibit BB: Lake Superior College website: www.lsc.edu

3. Exhibit CC: Dental Hygiene Program Handbook (separate document)

2-7

2-7 Written documentation of the curriculum must be provided at the initiation of course instruction and include course descriptions, content outlines, including topics to be presented, specific instructional objectives, learning experiences, and evaluation procedures.

Intent:

The program should identify the dental hygiene fundamental knowledge and competencies that will be included in the curriculum based on the program goals, resources, current dental hygiene practice responsibilities and other influencing factors. Curriculum documentation needs to be periodically reviewed and revised to accurately reflect instruction being provided as well as new concepts and techniques taught in the program.

A. Description

1. Describe how this information is provided at the initiation of instruction.

All course syllabi are distributed to the students on the first day that the course meets. The dental hygiene program has a standardized course syllabus format that all program instructors follow. The instructor takes time on the first day of class to have an orientation session where the students have the opportunity to meet the instructor, receive the course syllabus which includes course descriptions, content outlines, including topics to be presented, specific instructional objectives, learning experiences, and evaluation procedures.

In a separate curriculum document, provide the syllabus for each course in the dental hygiene curriculum to include: (please note these elements are also required for the description for Standards 2-10 through 2-16 as noted on page 32)

a. Course title and number;

b. Course description;

c. Course outline, including topics to be presented;

d. Specific instructional objectives for each topic presented;

e. Didactic/laboratory/clinical learning experiences, including time allocated for each experience;

f. Evaluation criteria and procedures; and

g. Date prepared and name of applicable faculty presenting course.

2. For each term of the current year’s dental hygiene curriculum, provide a class schedule as illustrated in the example Exhibit H. If a schedule does not extend the entire year, provide supplemental schedules. Include course number, indicate whether the session is lecture, laboratory or clinic; and provide the name(s) of the faculty member(s) responsible.

Please refer to Exhibit H

2-8

2-8 The dental hygiene program must define and list the competencies needed for graduation. These competencies must be written and communicated to enrolled students.

Intent:

The educational goals and competencies for the dental hygiene education program should include the preparation of graduates who possess the knowledge, skills and values to begin the practice of dental hygiene.

A. Description

1. Describe how the competencies are conveyed to students.

All dental hygiene students receive the Dental Hygiene Program Handbook at the orientation/registration session. The program competency document, which defines and lists the competencies needed for graduation, is in this Handbook. The students are also required to purchase a Lake Superior College Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual (separate document) prior to starting the program. The program requirements for graduation are listed in this manual. The Clinic Manual is listed as a reference on almost all dental hygiene course syllabi and reviewed by each faculty as it pertains to their course.

B. Supportive Documentation

1. Exhibit H: Dental hygiene course schedule

2. Exhibit Z: Dental Hygiene Clinic Manual (separate document)

3. Exhibit CC: Dental Hygiene Program Handbook (separate document)

2-9

2-9 The dental hygiene program must employ student evaluation methods that measure all defined program competencies. These evaluation methods must be written and communicated to the enrolled students.

Intent:

The evaluation methods used in the dental hygiene program should include process and end-product assessments of student performance, as well as a variety of objective testing measures. These mechanisms will provide student performance data related to measuring defined program competencies throughout the program for the students, faculty and college administration.

A. Description

1. Describe how, and what intervals, students’ laboratory, preclinical and clinical performance/competency is evaluated. Include all forms utilized to evaluate students’ skills in the separate course outlines document. Provide all evaluation tools and strategies used to assess competence.

Students evaluations are ongoing and the interval depends on what year and semester of the program students are in.(ie: first year fall semester; first year spring semester; second year fall semester; or second year spring semester. Laboratory and preclinical evaluations occur after competencies are introduced. The student must complete the competency, at the expected level of performance, in order to continue in the course. The competency evaluations become more rigorous as the student’s ability increases. Evaluations and tests are both written (criterion exam) and process (mastery checklist). Students are evaluated daily in all clinic sessions and have regularly scheduled APIE and practical evaluations.

Please refer to the separate Curriculum Document and Clinic Manual(Exhibit Z) for documentation of all process and end-product evaluations used specific for each course. The last section of the Clinic Manual contains all the evaluation tools used for clinic courses.

2. What standards of achievement/competence are required for dental hygiene students to continue in each portion of the curriculum? How and when are these standards explained to the students?

As stated in the LSC Program Handbook and the Lake Superior College Catalog, to be accepted into the dental hygiene program all pre-requisite courses must be completed with a grade of “C” or better with an overall G.P.A. of 2.6 or better and students must complete 20 hours of a shadowing experience. Once in the program, students must complete all course with a “C” or better to continue in the program.

The standards of achievement are stated in the Dental Hygiene Program Handbook, the Clinic Manual and on each course syllabus. Students are given the Program Handbook at orientation/registration, prior to entering the program. The course syllabi are distributed and explained on the first day of class each semester. Each semester is a pre- requisite to the next, so if students do not earn a “C” or better in a course, he/she will not be allowed to continue in the program.

3. Who reviews dental hygiene students’ academic and clinical performance and what action is taken when a student’s performance is below minimum standards? How frequently is the student made aware of his/her performance?

The dental hygiene faculty has weekly meetings to discuss clinic, program and student issues. The faculty reviews the dental hygiene students’ academic and clinical performance at these weekly meetings as well as through daily communication. When a student’s performance is below minimum standards, the student receives a written academic progress report from the program administrator and is encouraged to meet with the course instructor and sometimes their advisor to discuss the situation and possible solutions to improve student performance.

During laboratory and clinical courses, students receive verbal feedback during all procedures and individual instruction to increase skill levels. All written evaluations scores are posted on D2L within 72 hours of an exam. If a student has performed below minimum standards on a test or quiz, the instructor will suggest that the student sign up to meet with them during advising hours to review areas of deficiencies. All program faculty maintain posted office hours and are also available to meet with students at arranged times.

All students are required to meet individually with their dental hygiene program advisor at lease once a semester. Students and faculty use this formal conference to discuss performance status, grades, and general advising information.

4. Describe procedures for assisting students who are having academic difficulties.

The dental hygiene faculty and program administrator meet as a group to discuss student performance and make suggestions to assist students having academic difficulties. Each situation is carefully assessed as to the student’s needs. There are several options available to students depending on their specific area of difficulty. Students are encouraged to study with a classmate for lecture and lab courses. The program has a peer mentorship where a second year student is paired with a first year student. The program encourages this mentor program to help assist students in all aspects of the dental hygiene program. Peer mentorship is also encouraged for students to observe classmates and work with each other in the lab or clinical setting. LSC has an Academic Supportive Services center to assist students with course preparation, study skills, tutoring, note taking and test anxiety.

Dental hygiene faculty are available to arrange additional lab and practice times to assist students with pre-clinical and lab courses. Program faculty have the ability to work one on one with students during clinical and lab courses to assist students who are experiencing academic difficulties. Assistance and remediation can be modified as the instructor deems necessary in order for the student to succeed. Students are encouraged to sign up to meet with faculty one on one during their advising time.

5. To what extent do evaluation procedures for didactic instruction:

a. Allow both students and faculty to periodically assess student progress in relation to stated objectives?

Periodic assessment of student progress for didactic instruction takes place with regularly scheduled evaluations utilizing multiple methods. All evaluations of student performance is directly related to objectives. At mid-semester, if the students’ grade status is below a “C”, the program administrator sends out an academic alert letter to the student. The letter advises the student of his/her grade and urges him/her to seek additional instructor help.

b. Require students to demonstrate higher-order knowledge and application?

Students are expected to demonstrate higher order of knowledge and application in a variety of situations, such as:

  • Written examinations with case studies
  • Dental hygiene case planning exercises
  • Radiographic interpretation
  • Simulated dental emergencies
  • Problem solving situations
  • Write a research paper
  • Develop a portfolio including reflective pieces
  • Self assessment of their work prior to faculty evaluation
  • Develop a case study
  • Take the Comprehensive Capstone Examination

c. Become more rigorous as the student’s ability increases?

As the student progress in the dental hygiene education process, they are expected to integrate course content from previous courses and demonstrate an ability to synthesize, analyze and apply this knowledge to hypothetical and clinical situations with increasing complexity.

d. Lend themselves to consistent application by faculty?

Evaluation procedures for didactic instruction are based upon specific learning objectives stated in individual course syllabi. The same didactic grade scale is followed by all faculty. A copy of this scale is found in the Dental Hygiene Student Handbook (Exhibit CC). The program utilizes a grading matrix as much as possible with specific and measurable criteria to increase consistent application by faculty.

e. Evaluate student’s responsibility for professional judgment and conduct?

Discussion on professionalism and ethical decision making and problem solving is initiated in DENH2550 (Community Dental Health). Some test questions and written assignments are structures to allow students to express their professional judgment in hypothetical situations followed by classroom discussion. Other courses in the program curriculum address professional judgment and conduct as it pertains to specific course content. Those classes incorporate appropriate test questions and exercises for professional judgment and conduct.

6. To what extent do evaluation procedures for laboratory, preclinical and clinical instruction:

a. Allow both students and faculty to periodically assess student progress in relation to stated objectives?

Periodic assessment of student progress for laboratory, pre-linical and clinical instruction takes place with regularly scheduled evaluations utilizing multiple methods. All evaluation of student performance is directly related to performance objectives. At mid-semester, if the students’ grade status is below a “C”, the program administrator sends out an academic alert letter to the student. The letter advises the student of his/her grade and urges him/her to seek additional instructor help.

b. Reflect the process as well as the end result?

All laboratory, preclinical and clinical evaluation forms break down the grading into process as well as end product. The evaluations become more rigorous as the students progress through the program. The clinic evaluations not only become more rigorous, the weight of evaluation is changed each semester from more process oriented to more end product as they progress through the program. Several of the evaluations require the student to assess their performance prior to the instructor evaluation.

c. Monitor each student’s progress through time?

Evaluation procedures monitor each student’s progress as they continue throughout the program. Multiple assessment tools are utilized to evaluate the students as they progress through each course in the program. Program faculty monitor all student progress through the program utilizing multiple evaluations, faculty meetings, and student advising.

d. Define performance standards in clear, specific terms?

Each evaluation form has concise and clear performance standards stated for the procedures. Students are given specific evaluation forms prior to being evaluated so they know exactly what is expected of them and how they will be evaluated. The practical exam is a comprehensive evaluation to determine competency and therefore not available to the student prior to the exam. All laboratory evaluation forms have specific performance standards listed in clear and specific terms. The students have these forms available to them prior to completing a laboratory project so they know what is expected. Most of the laboratory evaluation forms require the student to evaluate their project prior to having an instructor evaluation. Please refer to the Curriculum Document and Clinic Manual for specific evaluation forms.

e. Enable the student to meaningfully evaluate his/her own work?

Individualized instruction allows for the students to perform a self-evaluation. Each evaluation form is a checklist designed as a step by step guide for the student to evaluate his/her performance. Several of the laboratory, preclinical and clinical evaluation forms require the student to evaluate their own work prior to obtaining an instructor evaluation.

f. Support individualized instruction throughout clinical practice sessions?

Instructors work directly with each student during the learning process in labs, pre-clinical and clinical courses. Students have the opportunity to demonstrate skills and procedures for the instructors during the learning process and during the evaluation of the skills or procedures. A 6:1 student faculty ratio supports individualized instruction throughout clinical practice sessions. Should a student request additional instruction, the program has dental units and an x-ray room available every week for students to sign up to receive individualized instruction during the faculty advising hours.

g. Become more rigorous as the student’s ability increases?

The dental hygiene evaluation forms have been constructed to allow students a greater number of errors while they are learning a new skill or procedure. As time progresses and student competency increases, students are allowed fewer errors in performance. The clinic evaluation tool also progresses from being more process oriented to more end product as the student progresses through the clinic courses. The last semester of clinic requires the student to increase their production while maintaining their performance level.

h. Lend themselves to consistent application by faculty?

At the start of each semester, the dental hygiene faculty meets and reviews all assessment and evaluation forms used for lab, pre-clinical and clinical procedures. During this review process, the faculty incorporates various calibration techniques to ensure consistency during evaluation procedures. Upon completion of each assessment period, the faculty reviews the tools for any inconsistencies and makes modifications accordingly. During regularly scheduled faculty meetings, dental hygiene courses are reviewed. During this course review, evaluation forms are discussed, including calibration. If there is a concern, we schedule a calibration session as part of a future faculty meeting.

Clinical assessments are performed by all instructors throughout the semester. However, practical evaluations are performed by the same instructor each semester to maintain consistency. In the course syllabi, the students are informed of the evaluation schedule and have the forms. This encourages them to prepare and ask questions if there is a concern about the evaluation tool prior to testing.

i. Evaluate student’s responsibility for professional judgment and conduct?

The course syllabi, Dental Hygiene Student Handbook and LSC website contain ethical policies for student conduct and professionalism. Students are expected to follow institutional, program, and clinical ethical guidelines. Students are responsible to initiate readiness for evaluation of procedures. The clinical evaluation forms have an ethical/professional component for instructors to evaluate students’ professional judgment and conduct in the clinic. Other laboratory, preclinical and clinical courses in the program curriculum address professional judgment and conduct as it pertains to specific course content. Those classes incorporate appropriate test questions for professional judgment and conduct.

7. For distance education sites: describe how examinations are managed to remain secure if administering via technology, and how examinations are graded in a timely manner.

The program does not utilize distance education sites.

B. Supportive Documentation

1. Exhibit Z: LSC Clinic Manual (separate document)

2 Exhibit BB: LSC Website: www.lsc.edu

3: Exhibit CC: Dental Hygiene Program Handbook (separate document)

4. Exhibit: Dental Hygiene Curriculum document (separate document)